A. Definition of Project-Based Learning The term project-based learning is a learning term which is translated based on the term project-based learning in English. According to BIE 1999 in Trianto (2014) project based learning is a learning model that involves students in case-solving activities and provides opportunities for students to work autonomously in constructing their own learning and ultimately making students’ work products of realistic value. Meanwhile, Hasnawati (2015), states that examples of learning using projects are activities in the learning process to achieve attitude, knowledge and skill competencies. The emphasis of learning lies in the activities of students to make products by applying the skills of researching, analyzing, creating, and presenting learning products from concrete experiences. The products in question are project outputs in the form of designs, schemes, written works, works of art, technological/craft works, and values. This approach allows students to work together independently and in groups to construct concrete products.
The same thing was expressed by Baker, Trygg, & Otto, 2011 in Fadli (2014) stating that project-based learning is a learning model that uses problems as the first step in collecting and integrating new knowledge based on experience in concrete activities. Project-based learning is designed to be used in complex conflicts that students need to investigate and understand. Project-based learning is an example of managing learning around projects.
The definition above refers to the opinion of several experts who put a definition of project-based learning. Buck Institute for Education (1999) in Trianto (2014:41) reveals: Project-Based learning (PBL) is an example for classroom activity that shifts away from the usual classroom activity that shifts away from the usual classroom practices of short, isolated, teacher-centred lessons. PBL learning activities are long-term, interdisciplinary, student-centred, and integrated with real-world issues and practices. With the following translation: (Project-based learning is a different model of classroom activities. Project-based learning activities are long term, interdisciplinary, student-centered and integrated with concrete world problems).
The project-based learning model (PBP) is an example of learning that involves students personally in the learning process through research activities to work on and complete a specific project. Although the example of project-based learning can be said to be an old example, this model has many advantages over other learning models, so the PBP model is widely used and continues to be developed. One of the advantages above is that the PBP model is considered to be an excellent example of learning in developing various basic skills that students must have, including thinking skills, decision-making skills, creative abilities, case-solving abilities, and at the same time seen as effective for building self-confidence. and self-management of students (Abidin, 2014).
While the example of project-based learning (project-based learning) is an example of learning that uses projects (activities) as the core of learning. In this activity, students explore, evaluate, interpret, and create facts to obtain various learning outcomes (knowledge, skills, and behavior).
Nashriah, 2014 added that this project-based learning not only examines the relationship between information and practice, but also motivates students to reflect on what they have learned in learning on a concrete project.
B. Characteristics and Principles of Project Based Learning 1. Characteristics of Project Based Learning According to the Buck Institute for Education (1999) in Trianto (2014: 43) explains that project based learning has characteristics, namely: :a. students as decision producers, & create frameworks b. there are cases where the solution is not influenced before c. students become process designers to achieve results. d. students are responsible for obtaining & managing the information collected. e. carry out assessments constantly. f. students regularly review what they are doing. g. the final output is in the form of a product and its quality is evaluated. h. The class has an atmosphere that tolerates mistakes and changes. The characteristics of project-based learning according to BIE (1999) in ….( ) position students as the main players in learning. Students are active in making decisions, designing solutions, taking responsibility for finding and managing coverage, and reflecting on what they are doing. In addition, there are cases or challenges without a predetermined solution, evaluation takes place continuously, and there is a final product, and the classroom has an atmosphere that tolerates mistakes and changes. Furthermore, the Intel Corporation also explained about the characteristics of project-based learning, which consists of: a. Students at the center of the learning process b. Project emphasis on important learning objectives aligned with curriculum specifications. c. Project driven by the Curriculum-Framing Questions.d. Projects involve monotony and several types of assessments.e. This project has a concrete world connection.f. Students demonstrate knowledge through a product or performance. g. Technology supports and enhances student learning. Thinking skills are an integral part of project work. i. Instructional strategies are varied and support multiple learning styles.
The characteristics of project-based learning according to Intel are basically the same as those mentioned above, but the concept is more complete. The similarity in the position of students who are active in learning, there are cases that are described in the form of questions. The thing that distinguishes using the characteristics above is the interaction using the concrete world. C. The principles of project-based learning Project-based learning can be identified through its characteristics, project-based learning is learning that increases knowledge and skills through product creation. Products are created using a series of planning, searching, collaborative activities. In his study Krajcik, et al. in Abdurrahim (2011) suggested five characteristics based on project-based learning, namely: driving question, investigation, artifacts, collaboration & technological tools.