Project Based Learning – Definition, Principles, Guidance

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  • 13 November

In the Regulation of the Minister of Education & Culture Number 65 of 2013 concerning Process Standards it is stated that the characteristics of Learning in each educational unit are closely related to the Graduate Competency Standards and Content Standards. Graduate Competency Standards put a conceptual framework on the learning objectives that must be achieved.

Content Standards provide a conceptual framework for learning and learning activities derived from the level of competence and the scope of the material. The learning objectives include the development of the domains of behavior, knowledge, and skills that are elaborated for each educational unit.

To encourage the ability of students to form contextual works both individually and in groups, it is highly recommended to use a learning approach that produces project-based work (Project Based Learning).

In this regard, it is necessary to understand the concept or definition of project-based learning models, the characteristics or characteristics of project-based learning models, project-based learning steps and the advantages & application of project-based examples. Definition of Project-Based Learning

Project-based learning is a learning model that provides opportunities for teachers to manage learning in the classroom by involving project work.

Through project-based learning, the inquiry process begins by raising guiding questions and guiding students in a collaborative project that integrates various materials into the curriculum. When the questions are answered, students can directly see the many main elements as well as the many principles in a discipline that is being studied.

Project-based learning is an in-depth examination of a topic in the concrete world, it will be valuable for students’ efforts. Given that each student has an asynchronous learning style, project-based learning provides opportunities for students to explore material using various means that are meaningful to themselves and to conduct collaborative experiments.

“Project work contains complex tasks based on very challenging questions and problems, and requires students to design, solve cases, make decisions, carry out investigative activities, and provide opportunities for students to work independently. Thomas, et al, 1999). The goal is that students have independence in completing the tasks they face. “Characteristics of Project-Based Learning”

According to the Buck Institute for Education (1999) project-based learning has the following characteristics: Students make decisions and create frameworks There are cases whose solutions are not predetermined Students design processes to achieve results Students are responsible for receiving and managing the collected coverage Students evaluating continuously Students regularly reviewing what they do The final result is a product and assessed for quality The classroom has an atmosphere that tolerates error and change Principles of Project-Based Learning Model

According to Thomas, project-based learning has several principles in its application, namely “Wena, 2011”: Centralistic This learning model is a center according to learning strategies because students examine the main concepts based on knowledge through project work. Project work is a center based on learning activities carried out by students in class. Guiding Questions Project work carried out by students is based on questions or problems that lead students to find concepts about certain fields. In this case, the activity of working as an external motivation that can generate internal motivation in students to build independence in completing assignments. Constructive Investigation Project-based learning is an examination process carried out by students to formulate the knowledge needed to work on projects. Therefore, the teacher must be able to design learning strategies that encourage students to carry out the process of searching and or deepening the concept of knowledge in order to solve the problems or projects they are facing. Autonomy Project-based learning, students are given the freedom or autonomy to choose their own goals and are responsible for what they do. The teacher acts as a motivator and facilitator to support the success of students in learning. Realistic The project that the student is working on is a synchronous concrete work using phenomena in the field of work or in the community. Projects that are done are not on simulations or imitations, but work or real battles. Project-Based Learning Guidance Guidelines

In guiding students in project-based learning, there are several things that need to be considered and used as a basis for action. The guidance guidelines include: Authenticity

Authenticity can be done using several strategies, namely by encouraging and guiding students to understand the meaning of the tasks being carried out, designing students’ tasks according to their abilities so that they can complete them on time, and encouraging and guiding students to be able to make something based on the tasks they are doing. .Adherence to academic values

This can be done in several ways, namely by encouraging and directing students to be able to apply a variety of knowledge in completing the tasks at hand, designing and sharing assignments that can challenge students to use various methods of problem solving and encourage and guide students. to be able to think high-level in solving problems.Learning in the real world

This can be done using the following strategies, namely encouraging and guiding students to be able to work in the context of concrete conflicts that exist in the community, encouraging and directing students to be able to work in organizational situations that use high technology, and encouraging and directing students to able to manage the ability of his personal skills.Active research

This can be done by encouraging and directing students to complete their assignments according to the schedule they have made, encouraging and directing students to conduct research using various methods, and encouraging and directing students to communicate with others, either through presentations or through presentations. other media.Relationship with experts

This can be done by encouraging and directing students to be able to learn from others who have relevant knowledge, encouraging and directing students to discuss with others on solving problems, and encouraging and directing students to invite outsiders to be involved in assessing their performance.

This can be done using several strategies, namely encouraging and directing students to be able to self-assess their performance in doing their assignments, encouraging and directing students to invite outsiders to be involved in sharing work standards related to their duties and encouraging and directing students to assess their work. Pros and Cons of Project-Based Learning Model

According to Boss and Kraus, this learning model has the following advantages or advantages: “Abidin 2007:170”: This model is integrated with the curriculum so that it does not require any additions to its implementation. Students are involved in concrete global activities and practice authentic strategies in a disciplined manner. Students work collaboratively to solve critical cases for them. Integrated technology as a tool for discovery, collaboration and communication in achieving important learning goals in new ways. Increasing teacher collaboration in designing & implementing projects that cross geographical boundaries or even jump zones when.

In addition to excellence, this learning model is also evaluated as having the following weaknesses “Abidin, 2013:171”: Requires lots of time & portfolio. Requires lots of media and learning origins. Requires teachers and students who are both ready to learn & develop. There are concerns Students will only master one particular topic they are working on.

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