A system is an arrangement in which all units work correctly using rules. It can also be defined as a way to work, organize or multitask precisely using a permanent plan. For example, a watch is a system. These components follow a set of rules to explain that when any of their parts fail, the watch will stop working. So we can say, in a system, all its subcomponents depend on each other. An Embedded system is a combination of computer hardware and software, either using permanent or programmable capabilities, that are designed for exclusive functions or functions on a wider system. Industrial machines, agricultural industrial devices, automobiles, medical devices, cameras, household appliances, airplanes, vending machines and toys, and mobile devices are possible models for implementing Embedded systems. This Sumatra Embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks, such as design design to optimize machines, reduce product size and portfolio, or increase work performance.

The word embedded describes a part that cannot stand alone. In contrast to using a digital system designed for general purposes. Embedded systems are generally implemented using a microcontroller, embedded systems can provide real time responses and are widely used in digital devices, such as watches. Embedded systems range from portable devices such as digital clocks and MP3 players, to large stationary installations such as traffic lights, factory controllers, or controlling nuclear energy power generation systems. Therefore the Embedded System has a classic based on a System that is embedded in it. In general, the definition of an embedded system is a computing system, but the embedded system varies according to not having a user interface (UI). For example, in devices where the system is designed to perform a single task – to a complex graphical user interface (GUI), for example on a mobile device. The user interface can include buttons, LEDs, touch screen sensors, and more. Some systems also use a remote pause user interface. The Embedded System has 3 important components, namely:

1. Have a Hardware Device.

2. Have Firmware and Software.

3. Have an operating system

Ketika konkret atau Realtime Operating system (RTOS) yang mengawasi software pelaksanaan dan menyediakan prosedur buat membiarkan prosesor menjalankan proses tepat penjadwalan menggunakan mengikuti planning buat mengontrol latensi. RTOS adalah cara sistem untuk bekerja. RTOS tetapkan anggaran selama aplikasi acara pelaksanaan. Sistem Embedded skala mini mungkin tidak mempunyai RTOS. Jadi kita bisa mendefinisikan sistem Embedded menjadi sistem berbasis mikrokontroler, berbasis software, andal, sistem kontrol ketika-konkret.


The Fundamental Structure of the Embedded System

The following is the architecture according to the embedded system, the following illustration describes the basic structure of the Embedded system:

1.Sensor: This device measures a physical quantity and converts it as an electrical frequency which can be read by the observer or an electrical instrument such as an A2D converter. The sensor stores the data of the amount to be measured by the memory.

2. A-D Converter: An analog-to-digital converter replaces the analog frequency sent by the sensor as a digital frequency.

3. Processor and ASICs: The processor processes the data to measure the results and saves it to memory.

4. D-A Converter: A digital to analog converter replaces the digital data that the processor feeds into analog data.

5. Aktuator: Aktuator membandingkan hasil yang diberikan sang Konverter D-A menggunakan hasil aktual yang dibutuhkan yang tersimpan pada dalamnya dan menyimpan hasil yang disetujui.

Current Development of Embedded Systems

Devices for transit systems, systems for elevators Distributed control Small systems Mobile phones, Systems for Signal processing systems Real-time video, systems for set-top boxes, systems for running DVD players, systems for medical equipment, residential gateways. Network routers, Switch devices, firewalls, home appliances systems, toys, smartcard systems, MP3 players, PDAs,

Applications For Embedded Systems

1. In Aerospace: Systems for flight attitude controls, engine controls systems, systems for navigation, systems for automatic landings.

2. In Automotive: Systems for anti-locking braking systems, systems for air bag controls, systems for fuel injection control, systems for passenger environmental controls, GPS mapping programs and cruise control systems.


3. Systems for children’s games: Video games programs, and Mindstone systems Communication media such as Satellite systems, network routers systems, Switch devices, hubs.

4. Computer hardware: Printer deployment, scanner deployment, keyboard deployment, displays deployment, modems deployment, hard disk, CD-ROM, USB.

5. Household systems: applications in washing machines, applications in microwave ovens, VCR’s, DVDs, applications in televisions, stereos, applications in fire or security alarm systems, applications in lawn sprinkler controls, applications in thermostats, applications in digital cameras, applications in clocks radios and applications in cell phones.

6. Industry : Elevator controls, surveillance systems, robots. Instrumentation : Data collection, oscilloscopes, signal generators, signal analyzers, power supplies.

7. Individual systems: PDAs, pagers, IPODs, MP3 players, cellular phones. Office equipment: FAX machine, photocopier, telephone.

8. Systems for Health: CT systems, one touch glucose meter devices, and almost all hospital facilities.

Embedded system characteristics

Has computing power. In other terms, it is equipped with a processor. Work in an outdoor IT environment. So there is a wide possibility that it is not equipped with air conditioning and faces external disturbances such as vibration and dust. Have a specific task. Unlike using a PC or Server, which is relatively more multi-purpose, the applications are generally used for Embedded Factory Control systems. Computer transactions on the Toll Road. Telemetry at remote locations, for example, observing the water level in a dam. Smart Electronic equipment installed on the car